SENNAN GRAMMAR


VERB FORMS

TIME-RELATIONAL

ex: NO-ON ["to be"]

no ----------------------- "be"
nosa ---------------------- "I am"
no-oi --------------------- "to be"
no-onode -------------------- "being"
u no -------------------- "was"
o no -------------------- "will be"

"I am" ------------------- nosa
"I am being" ------------- no-ode nosa
"I was" ------------------- u no sadu
"I will be" -------------- o no sadu
"I have been" ------------- u no sadu
"I will have been" -------- o no noanto sadu "I will be [with certainty] then"

PAST TENSE

"I was" and "I have been" are the same - there is only a single form of past tense in Sennan. Past continuous doesn`t work in the same way as English.

"I read it" ----------------- stays the same
"I was reading it" ---------- stays the same
"I have been reading it" ---- "I am reading it"/"I read it on occasion"
(How this is phrased depends on context; if the action being described is still in progress, its continual nature can be explained by contextualizing that progress. Hence temporal phrases like "on occasion" or "every other week". Adverbs like "weekly" or "sometimes" aren`t used.)

SPEAKER-RELATIONAL

ex: AUNO ["to bring"]

Affirmative: ----- o auno ------ "will bring"
Conditional: ----- aunome ------ "[if] bring"
Causative: ------- aunomob ----- "bring [because of it]"
Presumptive: ----- aunoma ------ "probably bring"
Volitional: ------ auno va ----- "let`s bring"
Potential: ------- aunomir ----- "able to bring"/"can bring"/"may bring"
Passive: --------- no aunoden -- "is brought"
Philosophical: --- aunos ------- "to theoretically bring"

Because --------- "I saw because I looked." ------------- U ioso gio u vuvo sadu.
And then ---------"I looked and then saw." -------------- U vuvo cu nual u ioso sadu.
If, then -------- "If I looked, then I would see." ------ Di u vuvo, u ios sadu.
Neither/nor ----- "I neither looked, nor saw." ---------- U nevuvo, u neioso sadu.
Either/or ------- "I either look, or I see." ------------ Uec vuvode, ma iosode sadu.
And ------------- "I saw Del, and he saw me." ----------- U ioso Del sadu, cu u ioso sa Deludu.

PARTICIPLES

In English, participles are verbs used as adjectives: for example, a mounted horse, or a sprinting athlete. Though identical to their usual verb forms, placement within the sentence identifies them as modifiers of nouns.

Sennan has separate verb forms that are used for this purpose.

"The man was tired": u noan bonde
"The tired man": um bondandu
"The man tired": i'andu u bondo

"The woman is working": noes tegode
"The working woman": un tegesdu
"The woman works": i'esdu tego


NOUN CASES

ex: AVO [singular they]

Nominative: ------ avodu -------- "they"
Accusative: ------ avodan ------- "them"
Possessive: ------ avoiu/avoio -- "their [arm]"/"their [drink]"
Partitive: ------- avogio ------- "[part] of them"
Origin: ---------- avogan ------- "they of [location]"
Dative: ---------- avogo -------- "to them"

SINGULAR AND PLURAL

ex: SUM ["day"]

Singulative: ----- sum ----------- "[one]day"
Plural: ---------- sumi ---------- "days"
Collective: ------ sumiun -------- "days [together in a group]"
Dual: ------------ sumieto ------- "two days"
Trial: ----------- sumuambe ------ "three days"

The Three Gods: Oa`Naiorambe

ARTICLES

Demonstrative (speaker): --------- iomi`- ---- "this"
Demonstrative (listener): -------- iomu`- ---- "that"
Definite: ------------------------ a`- ------- "the"
Indefinite: ---------------------- i`- ------- "a"/"an"
Unknown: ------------------------- ne`- ------ "some-" (as in "somebody", "someplace"; can also imply otherness/something removed from its original context: a "someperson" can reference both a stranger or an unidentified corpse)


PRONOUNS

1st PERSON

I/my: ------------------------------- sa/sa-

2nd PERSON

you/ your: -------------------------- to/to(r)-
You/Your: --------------------------- teru/ter(u)-

3rd PERSON

By gender:
He/his: ----------------------------- an/an-
She/her: ---------------------------- es/es-
They/their (sing., ambiguous): ------ av/av(o)-
They/their (sing., intersex): ------- ne/nen-
It/its (sing., inanimate): ---------- tide/ti-

By class/job:
Magic worker/clergy: ---------------- be/be(c)-
Artisan: ---------------------------- eue/eue(n)-
Warrior: ---------------------------- som/so-

By race:
Faithful: --------------------------- ver/ve(r)-
Spirits: ---------------------------- let/let(o)-

By group:
We/our: ----------------------------- aun/aun-
They/their: ------------------------- ran/ran-

4th PERSON/OBVIATIVE

Append -te(n)- to any third-person pronouns

ex: "They went and spoke to them."
---- er rante u no cu u seno randu
---- [to them[obj, 4th] went and spoke they[sub, 3rd]]

ZERO PERSON

Add va, ``it is`` at the end of the clause

REFLEXIVE

-self: ----------------------------- -des
-Self: ----------------------------- -(e)nden


ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS

Adverbs and adjectives are treated as a single grammatical category and all end in -de.

Fast ------------ satde (`fastly`)

"The car is fast": satde solandu va (informal: `fastly [the]car [it is]`) - noti satde a`solandu (formal: `it is fastly the car`)

"The red car": imode solandu (informal: `redly [the]car`) - noti imode a`solandu (formal: `it is redly the car`])

"The red car goes fast": olo satde imode solandu (informal: `goes fastly redly the car` ) - oloti imode satde a`solandu (formal: `it goes fastly redly the car`)

If it is established that a specific car is being referenced, `solandu` can be left out entirely in informal speech. Words modifying verbs directly follow the action, and words modifying nouns come before.


WORD ORDER

In informal situaions, the word order is malleable, with meaning built around the sentence`s subject, indicated by the suffix -du. In formal speech, word order, verb forms, and noun cases are adhered to more strictly.

Example: "I agree with you"

Informal:
"Agree I you" - sieno sa todu - V-O-S
"You I agree" - todu sa sieno - S-O-V
"You agree I" - todu sieno sa - S-V-O
"Agree[I] you" - sienosa to - VO-S

The "with" is implied here, as there are only two people the speaker is referencing. The person who is the subject of the agreement, and the person doing the agreeing.

Formal:
"Agree I with you" - sienosa iil todu - V-O-S
"With you I agree" - iil todu sienosa - S-O-V